Reading comprehension 8 – Human memory

Human memory, formerly believed to be rather inefficient, is really much more sophisticated than that of a computer. Researchers approaching the problem from a variety of points of view have all concluded that there is a great deal more stored in our minds than has been generally supposed. Dr. Wilder Penfield, a Canadian neurosurgeon, proved that by stimulating their brains electrically, he could elicit the total recall of complex events in his subjects’ lives. Even dreams and other minor events supposedly forgotten for many years suddenly emerged in detail.

The memory trace is the term for whatever forms the internal representation of the specific information about the event stored in the memory. Assumed to have been made by structural changes in the brain, the memory trace is not subject to direct observation but is rather a theoretical construct that is used to speculate about how information presented at a particular time can cause performance at a later time. Most theories include the strength of the memory trace as a variable in the degree of learning, retention, and retrieval possible for a memory. One theory is that the fantastic capacity for storage in the brain is the result of an almost unlimited combination of interconnections between brain cells, stimulated by patterns of activity. Repeated references to the same information support recall. Or, to say that another way, improved performance is the result of strengthening the chemical bonds in the memory.

Psychologists generally divide memory into at least two types, short-term and long-term memory, which combine to form working memory. Short-term memory contains what we are actively focusing on at any particular time, but items are not retained longer than twenty or thirty seconds without verbal rehearsal. We use short-term memory when we look up a telephone number and repeat it to ourselves until we can place the call. On the other hand, long-term memory can store facts, concepts, and experiences after we stop thinking about them. All conscious processing of information, as in problem solving for example, involves both short-term and long-term memory. As we repeat, rehearse, and recycle information, the memory trace is strengthened, allowing that information to move from short-term memory to long-term memory.

Vocabulary

inefficient : tidak efisien

sophisticated : canggih

variety : ragam

elicit : memperoleh

emerged : muncul

trace : jejek

internal : sela waktu

observation: observasi/pengamatan

particular : tertentu

retention : ingatan

retrieval : pemulihan

unlimited : tak terbatas

stimulated : merangsang

pattern : pola

divide : tebagi

term : memasukan

facts : fakta

concept : konsep

conscious : sadar

rehearse : berlatih

Main idea

  1. Human memory is much more sophiscated than computer.
  2. The theory of memory trace
  3. Diferent between short-term and long-term memory

Summary

Human memory is more sophiscated than computer concluded that there is a great deal more stored in our minds than has been generally supposed.

the oretical construct that is used to speculate about how information presented at a particular time can cause performance at a later time. the theory memory trace include a variable in the degree of learning, retention, and retrieval possible for a memory. fantastic capacity for storage in the brain is the result of an almost unlimited combination of interconnections between brain cells, stimulated by patterns of activity.

Psychologists generally divide memory into at least two types, short-term and long-term memory. short-term memory when we look up a telephone number and repeat it to ourselves until we can place the call and long-term memory can store facts, concepts, and experiences.

Questions:

  1. What is the main topic of the passage?
    The main topic is human memory
  1. What is the synonym of the word formerly in paragraph?
    The synonym formerly is in the past
  1. Compared with a computer, what is human memory?
    Human memory more complex than computer
  1. How did Penfield stimulate dreams and other minor events from the past?
    By electronical stimulation
  1. Align with the passage, what is the capacity for storage in the brain?
    can be understood by examining the psychology of the brain
  1.  What does the word bonds in paragraph 2 mean?
    Connections
  1. What is the reason that author mentions looking up a telephone number?
    It is an example of short-term memory
  1. List some nature of a memory trace!
    can be understood by examining the psychology of the brain
  1. Write one statement that the author would most likely agree!
    The mind has a much greater capacity for memory than that was previously believe