Reading Comprehension 10 : The influenza virus

The influenza virus is a single molecule composed of millions of individual atoms. Although bacteria can be considered a type of plant, secreting poisonous substances into the body of organism they attack, viruses, like the influenza virus, are living organisms themselves. We may consider them regular chemical molecules since they have strictly defined atomic structure; but on the other hand, we must also consider them as being alive since they are able to multiply in unlimited quantities.

An attack brought on by the presence of the influenza virus in the body produces a temporary immunity, but, unfortunately, the protection is against only the type of virus that caused the influenza. Because the disease can be produced by any one of three types, referred to as A, B, or C and many varieties within each type, immunity to one virus will not prevent infection by other types or strains. Protection from the influenza virus is also complicated by the fact that immunity to a specific virus persists for less than a year. Finally, because a virus may periodically change characteristics, the problem of mutation makes it difficult to carry out a successful immunization program. Vaccines are often ineffective against newly evolving strains.

Approximately every ten years, worldwide epidemics of influenza called pandemics occur. Thought to be caused by new strains of type-A virus,  these pandemic viruses have spread rapidly, infecting millions of people.

Vaccines have been developed that have been found to be 70 to 90 percent effective for at least six months against either A or B types of the influenza virus, and a genetically engineered live-virus vaccine is under development. Currently, the United States Public Health Service recommends annual vaccination only for those at greatest risk of complications from influenza, including pregnant women and the elderly. Nevertheless, many other members of the general population request and receive flu shots every year, and even more are immunized during epidemic or pandemic cycles.

Vocabularies

Composed                 : Menyusun

Considered                 : Dipertimbangkan

Poisonous                   : Beracun

Substances                 :zat-zat

Presence                     : Kehadiran

Temporary                 : Sementara

Unfortunately            : Tidak beruntung

Against                       : Melawan

Disease                        : Penyakit

Referred                     : Menunjuk

Immunity                   : Kekebalan

Prevent                       : Mencegah

Infection                     : Infeksi

Complicated               : Komplikasi

Persists                       : Berlangsung

Periodically                : Kadangkala

Mutation                    : Mutasi

Vaccines                     : Vaksin

Ineffective                  : Tidak efektif

Approximately           : Kira-kira

Epidemics                   : Wabah

Occur                          : Terjadi

Spread                        : Penyebaran

Rapidly                       : Dengan cepat

Genetically                 : Keturunan

Engineered                 : Diperbaiki

Recommends             : Dianjurkan

Pregnant                    : Hamil

Elderly                        : Tua

Summary

The influenza virus is a single molecule composed of millions of individual atoms, the influenza virus, are living organisms themselves. the disease can be produced by any one of three types, referred to as A, B, or C and many varieties within each type, immunity to one virus will not prevent infection by other types or strains. type-A virus, these pandemic have spread rapidly, infecting millions of people. a genetically engineered live-virus vaccine is under development. vaccine developed to be 70 to 90 percent effective for at least six months against either A or B types of the influenza virus.

1. What is the main topic of the passage?
The influenza virus

2. According to this passage, bacteria are?
plants

3. What is the synonym of the word strictly in paragraph 1?
exactly

4. How is the atomic structure of viruses?
is strictly defined

5. Why does the author say that viruses are alive?
They multiply

6. What is another word of unlimited in paragraph 1?
very small

7. According to the passage, how does the body react to the influenza virus?
After a temporary immunity, it becomes even more susceptible to the type and strain that caused the influenza

8. List some characteristics of pandemics!
they occur once every ten years