Reading Comprehension 13

Use the steps to comprehend the text. Read 13th meeting passage:

1. Read the passage quickly and underlined the words that you don’t know

Seismologists have devised two scales of measurement to enable them to describe and record information about earthquakes in quantitative terms. The most widely known measurement is the Richter scale, a numerical logarithmic scale developed and introduced by American seismologist Charles R. Richter in 1935. The purpose of the scale is to measure the amplitude of the largest trace recorded by a standard seismograph one hundred kilometers from the epicenter of an earthquake. Tables have been formulated to demonstrate the magnitude of any earthquake from any seismograph. For example, a one-unit increase in magnitude translates into an increase of times thirty in released energy. To put that another way, each number on the Richter scale represents an earthquake ten times as strong as one of the next lower magnitude. Specifically, an earthquake of magnitude 6 is ten times as strong as an earthquake of magnitude 5.

On the Richter scale, earthquakes of 6.75 are considered great and 7.0 to 7.75 are considered major. An earthquake that reads 4 to 5.5 would be expected to have caused localized damage, and those of magnitude 2 may be felt.

The other earthquake-assessment scale, introduced by the Italian seismologist Giuseppe Mercalli, measures the intensity of shaking, using gradations from 1 to 12. Because the effects of such shaking dissipate with distance from the epicenter of the earthquake, the Mercalli rating depends on the site of the measurement. Earthquakes of Mercalli 2 or 3 are basically the same as those of Richter 3 or 4; measurements of 11 or 12 on the Mercalli scale can be roughly correlated with magnitudes of 8 or 9 on the Richter scale. In either case, the relative power or energy released by the earthquake can be understood, and the population waits to hear how bad the earthquake that just passed really was.

It is estimated that almost one million earthquakes occur each year, but most of them are so minor that they pass undetected. In fact, more than one thousand earthquakes of a magnitude of 2 or lower on the Richter scale occur every day.

2. Read again and use dictionary to look for the meaning of underlined words. List at least 20 minimum words!
1. Seismologists : seismolog
2. scales : sisik
3. earthquakes : gempa bumi
4. quantitative : kuantitatif
5. widely : sangat
6. measurement : pengukuran
7. amplitude : amplitudo
8. epicenter : pusat gempa bumi
9. demonstrate : mendemonstrasikan
10. Increase : meningkatkan
11. released : terlepas
12. magnitude : besarnya
13. considered : dianggap
14. damage : kerusakan
15. Felt : merasa
16. assessment : penaksiran
17. dissipate : menghilang
18. distance : jarak
19. roughly : kira-kira
20. correlated : berkolerasi
21. passed : berlalu
22. estimated : perkiraan
23. undetected : tanpa di ketahui

3. Note a main idea of each paragraph.

Main idea:
Paragraph 1 : scales of measurement to describe and record information about earthquakes in quantitative terms.
Paragraph 2 : earthquake in size scale richter.
Paragraph 3 : measures the intensity of shaking, using gradations from 1 to 12.
Paragraph 4 : almost one million earthquakes occur each year.

Summary :
Seismologists have devised two scales of measurement to enable them to describe and record information about earthquakes in quantitative terms. Specifically, an earthquake of magnitude 6 is ten times as strong as an earthquake of magnitude 5. earthquakes of 6.75 are considered great and 7.0 to 7.75 are considered major. An earthquake that reads 4 to 5.5 would be expected to have caused localized damage, and those of magnitude 2 may be felt. The other earthquake-assessment scale, introduced by the Italian seismologist Giuseppe Mercalli, measures the intensity of shaking, using gradations from 1 to 12. one thousand earthquakes of a magnitude of 2 or lower on the Richter scale occur every day.

4. Read again and answer the questions given. And make a summary of the passage.

1.Which of the following is the main topic of the passage?
= Earthquakes

2.According to information in the passage, what does the Richter scale record?
= The amplitude of the largest trace

3.The word standard in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by?
= reliable

4.What is the value of the tables?
= They help us to calculate our distance from earthquakes

5.How does each number on the Richter scale compare?
= Each number is one hundred times as strong as the previous number

6.What does the author means by the statement :
Because the effects of such shaking dissipate with distance from the epicenter of the earthquake, the Mercalli rating depends on the site of the measurement?
= The Mercalli rating will vary depending on the location of the measurement

7.The word undetected in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to?
= with no notice

8.With which of the following statements would the author most probably agree?
= The Mercalli and the Richter scales are different but they can be compared

9.The passage discusses all of the following in the explanation of the Richter scale EXCEPT?
= It has a scale of 1 to 12